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SURGERY

Surgery attempts to remove localized tumors completely or reduce the size of large tumors so that follow-up treatment by radiation or chemotherapy will be more effective. There are different types of cancer surgeries. Some of them are as follows:

Curative Surgery
Curative surgery, also called exeresis or resection, is very efficient in a lot of cases. Curative surgery is only possible for some kinds of tumor. When the tumor is inside the organ or when it is too big, direct surgery is not advisable. In such a situation, doctors prescribe a neoadjuvant treatment, which is basically radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Both radiotherapy and chemotherapy helps reduce the size of the tumor so that it can be removed easily in the surgical process. However, some tumors cannot be removed even after neoadjuvant treatment.

Depending on case, either the entire organ is removed or only the part affected by the tumor. The closest lymph nodes are also removed to avoid eventual relapses due to the presence of cancerous cells into the lymph nodes.

After the surgery, a complementary treatment of chemotherapy or radiotherapy is prescribed to remove the few cells that could not be removed during the surgery. This complementary treatment is called adjuvant.

Prophylactic Surgery
Prophylactic surgery is the removal of abnormal tumors that may not yet be cancerous, but are detected as tumors with high risk of cancer. This risk depends on both lesion intrinsic factors and the patient's gene pool.

Cancer Surgery in India:

Surgery of cancerous tumors is being done in India. Some common types of cancer surgery done in India include:

Cryosurgery: It is a surgical procedure wherein doctors use very cold material, such as liquid nitrogen spray, or a cold probe to freeze and destroy cancer cells or cells that may become cancerous, such as irregular cells in your cervix that could become cervical cancer.

Electrosurgery: It is a surgical procedure wherein doctors use high-frequency electrical currents to kill cancer cells, for example, in your mouth or on your skin.

Laser Surgery: Laser surgery is used to treat many types of cancer. It is done by using beams of high-intensity light to shrink or vaporize cancer cells. In some cases, the heat of the laser accomplishes this. In other cases, the laser is used to activate a previously administered chemical that cancer cells absorb. When stimulated by light, the chemical kills the cancer cells: it's the photochemotherapy.

Mohs' Surgery: This one is useful for removing cancer from sensitive areas such as near the eye and for reaching the roots of a cancerous tumor. This method of surgery involves carefully removing cancer layer by layer with a scalpel.

Laparoscopic Surgery: A surgeon uses a laparoscope to see inside your body without making large incisions. Instead, several small incisions are made and a tiny camera and surgical tools are inserted into your body. The surgeon watches a monitor that projects what the camera sees inside your body. Laparoscopic surgery is used in cancer diagnosis, staging, treatment and symptom relief.

Image-Guided Surgery: In some instances, surgeons can rely on real-time images of your body to guide them when operating. For instance, rather than opening your skull to physically see inside your brain, a surgeon may use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the surgery. Other imaging techniques are used as well, including computerized tomography (CT) and ultrasound.

Risks of Cancer Surgery:

In general, most cancer operations carry a risk of the following:

  • Pain
  • Infection
  • Loss of organ function
  • Bleeding
  • Blood clots
  • Altered bowel and bladder function
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